The Complete Guide to iPod, Apple TV and iPhone Video Formats | iLounge Article


The Complete Guide to iPod, Apple TV and iPhone Video Formats

In the fall of 2005, Apple took their first steps into the portable video market with the fifth-generation iPod with video capabilities. This original “video iPod” sported a 320x240 screen and supported playback of videos encoded only at that maximum resolution using very specific formats. At the same time, the iTunes Store began offering video content in these formats suitable for playing on the iPod.

The limited content available on the iTunes Store, and the limited availability of it outside of the U.S. meant that many iPod owners immediately turned to converting their own videos into a format suitable for viewing on their iPod, and a plethora of utilities became available to automate this process.

The following year came an upgrade to the fifth-generation iPod providing higher-resolution video playback. This was soon followed by the Apple TV to provide playback of video content on your home entertainment system, and then the iPhone, providing a more natural widescreen portable video experience.

Even today, however, the video formats supported by the iPod, Apple TV, and iPhone are relatively limited compared to the number of formats available on the market. This means that just about any content that you want to view on these devices is going to require some type of conversion process. The advent of these new devices has complicated the landscape even further, since more options are now available for both the viewing and encoding of videos, but with these changes come more considerations about how to encode video for the best possible viewing experience.

In later articles, we’ll look at some of the specific tools and options available for converting video to an iPod, iPhone or Apple TV ready format, and some of the pros and cons of each. Before going into that, however, it’s important to start with a discussion of the video formats that are actually supported by each device so that those looking to convert their own video content can make informed decisions about the options available and the best resolution and format to use before starting the lengthy encoding process.

Apple’s Choice of Video Formats

The iPod, Apple TV and iPhone will play back videos encoded using either the MPEG-4 or H.264 codecs. These are open-standard video formats, and not in any way proprietary to Apple, but at the same time do not represent a broad portion of the video content that is currently available outside of the iTunes Store. Further, this does not represent the video standard that is used by most video recording devices, TV recording devices, or commercial DVDs. The result is that finding video content from anywhere other than the iTunes Store that is already encoded in an Apple-ready format is going to be difficult, and much of this content will therefore need to be converted.

For example, most commercial video cameras use either uncompressed Digital Video (or “DV”) or MPEG-2. Commercial DVDs also use MPEG-2 as their format. Videos downloaded from the Internet can be in any number of formats, including DivX, Windows Media Video (WMV) or QuickTime, among others.

Apple’s likely reason for these particular choices of codec is that they are an open, established standard, and they both provide a very high level of video and audio quality for a given file size. MPEG-4 has historically been very good in this regard to begin with, and the H.264 codec has only improved on the quality and file size efficiency.

As one would expect, when developing a portable video playback device, the quality-to-size ratio is very important both in terms of maximizing the amount of content that can fit on the more limited storage of a portable device, as well as maximizing the battery life of the device, as larger content can require additional processing power, thus shortening battery life. The H.264 codec appears to have been a natural fit to address both requirements, as well as providing a stable, open standard for Apple to use for their preferred video format.

Content on the iTunes Store uses the H.264 codec exclusively. Content you encode yourself can be encoded into either H.264 or MPEG-4, although H.264 will generally provide better quality for a given file-size, it also takes longer to encode.

Resolution and Bit-rate

Two other important considerations with video playback and the quality of the resulting file are the resolution and the bit-rate. The resolution simply refers to the dimension of the screen image, in terms of the number of pixels wide by the number of pixels high (ie, “640x480”) while the bit-rate refers to the amount of data that is actually encoded to make up a single second of video playback, normally expressed in either kilobits per second or megabits per second. This is the same concept as bit-rates for audio formats such as AAC and MP3.

Naturally, the higher that both of these numbers are, the better the quality of the resulting image will be. These factors both work together, however, since the resolution simply specifies the number of pixels available in a specific frame, and the bit-rate specifies how much actual information is being used to generate those pixels.

Without getting into too much technical detail, modern lossy video compression formats actually work not by encoding every single pixel of every single frame of a video, but rather simply encoding the information that changes between frames. “Reference frames” are taken at certain points, and the remaining frames are built based on what changes between each frame.

To conceptualize this, imagine watching a pro golfer make a putt:  Most of the scenery, the trees, the sky, and the golf course itself remains relatively unchanged throughout the putt, with only some motion from the golfer and of course the little white ball rolling across the green. Encoding every single frame of this would take up a lot of storage space (the equivalent of several hundred high-resolution JPEG files), when in reality very little is changing between frames. As a result, only the information that is different in each frame actually needs to be stored, and this can later be applied to the original reference frame to build a smooth video playback motion.

The bottom line is that this makes for significantly more efficient file sizes and storage of video content, and in fact is the same technology that DVDs use with the MPEG-2 format. Without MPEG-2 compression, a 90-minute DVD movie would actually occupy well over 167 GB of space, rather than fitting comfortably onto a 4.7 GB DVD.

How it directly affects the concept of bit-rates, therefore, has not to do with how much data is actually being encoded for each frame, but how much data is available to record the differences in frames. A high-resolution video with a low bit-rate will produce a more blurry image as well as visible signs of “artifacting” (distortion, blocking effects and jagged edges) on high-motion action sequences.

So what resolution and bit-rate should you use to encode your video content?  Logic would suggest that one should always use the highest settings possible, but much of this has to do with what your source content is, and the limitations of the equipment you’ll be using to watch it.

For example, if you only ever intend to watch video content on the iPod’s 320x240 screen, it would obviously be a waste of disk space and encoding time to convert these videos to any resolution higher than this.

Further, if your original source video is already at a smaller resolution, there is absolutely no point in encoding it in any higher resolution or bit-rate, as you’re not going to magically gain any resolution that wasn’t there in the first place. In our experience, consumer-grade conversion tools that promise “upconversion” of video formats are generally not worth the effort.

Likewise, even though the Apple TV supports a high-definition quality of video output (1280 x 720), if you are converting standard-definition DVDs, there is no sense in encoding them in anything beyond their original resolution.

So what are the different resolutions and formats supported by Apple’s video playback devices?  The table below provides an outline of the maximum resolutions supported, as well as the output quality of the device itself:


Naturally if you want to encode content for playback on the iPod and iPhone, you will have to stick to the lower-resolution settings of these devices—640 x 480 at 1.5 mbps. Content encoded in the higher Apple TV resolutions will not play on anything but the Apple TV.

Note that the resolutions above for the iPod and iPhone are the officially supported ones, and have been simplified in Apple’s specs to represent the more standard resolutions. More advanced users have noted that it is possible to push these resolutions and bit-rates slightly, although iTunes itself will not necessarily support the transfer of these files to the iPod or iPhone. For maximum compatibility it is therefore always best to stay within the published specifications.

A Word on Frame Rates

The “frame rate” of a video clip refers to the number of frames, or still images, for each second of video, normally expressed in “frames-per-second” or fps for short. Normal North American TV (NTSC) is broadcast in approximately 30 fps, while theatrical movies are normally 24 fps due to being shot on film. This means that if you’re encoding a DVD movie, chances are you’ll be looking to use 24 fps, whereas most other video content you record, including your own camera content and broadcast television content will be 30 fps. With the exception of the higher Apple TV resolution noted above, all resolutions support a maximum frame rate of 30 fps.

Bit-rate and File Size

Another important consideration when encoding videos is the size of the resulting file. This will correspond directly to the bit-rate of the file rather than the resolution (although higher resolutions require higher bit-rates), and while the H.264 and MPEG-4 codecs do a very efficient job of producing high-quality video at lower bit-rates, you’re still going to ultimately be constrained by how much space you have available on your particular device and how much content you want to be able to store.

If you’re inclined to do a bit of math, you can get an easy approximation of the file-size of a converted video simply by multiplying the bit-rate by the duration of the video, using a formula like the following:

size = (bit-rate / 8) * (length in minutes * 60)

The resulting size will be in either kilobytes if a kbps bitrate was used, or megabytes if a mbps bit-rate was used. So, for example, to calculate the size of a 90-minute movie being encoded at 1500 kbps, you would plug the numbers in as follows:

1500 / 8 * 90 * 60
187.5 * 5400
= 1,012,500 (KB)
or approximately 1 GB.

A simple rule-of-thumb, however, is that for standard iPod-encoded content (1.5mbps) you’ll be looking at approximately 500MB per hour of video content. Apple TV content at 3 mbps will naturally be twice that size (1GB per hour).

If storage space is of primary concern, encoding at lower bit-rates will naturally save some space, but this will come at the cost of video quality. Any bit-rate less than 1 mbps for 640x480 content will generally be too low to produce reasonably viewable TV output, for example.

Consider the Source…

Keep in mind as well when determining the best bit-rate to use to always keep the source content in mind. Older TV Shows on DVD, for example, will seldom benefit from using an extremely high bit-rate, since the original video quality was relatively low to begin with. On the other hand, recent blockbuster movies with lots of action and motion should definitely be encoding with as high a bit-rate as reasonably possible for the target device.

This is particularly relevant when considering whether to encode in a bit-rate suitable for the iPod or the Apple TV. Older TV content and analog TV recordings will rarely benefit from the higher-quality settings available for the Apple TV.

Aspect Ratios

Another very important consideration when trying to decide on the optimal format in which to encode your content is the aspect ratio of the original source content.

Aspect ratio simply refers to the ratio of the width of the image to the height of the image as shown on screen. There are three common aspect ratios in use for commercial video content today:

  • 4:3 used for almost all standard-definition TV broadcast content. This is sometimes also referred to as 1.33:1:
  • 16:9 used for almost all high-definition TV content (HDTV) and many theatrical DVD releases. This is sometimes also referred to as 1.78:1:
  • 2.35:1 used for “Cinemascope” or “Panavision” movies on DVD:

For commercial DVDs, you will generally find the aspect ratio indicated on the back. For other types of video content, you can determine the aspect ratio yourself simply by dividing the width of a video by its height.  For example a 640x480 video clip would have a 1.33:1 aspect ratio (640/480 = 1.33).

Since the aspect ratio of the content will not always match the aspect ratio of the actual output device, you will often get either “letterboxing” or cropping, depending on the device and its settings. Letterboxing is more common, which is the practice of adding black bars to the top and bottom of a widescreen video when playing it back on a standard TV.

A widescreen TV show, 16:9 aspect ratio, as shown on a 4:3 screen

A Cinemascope Movie, 2.35:1 aspect ratio, as shown on a 4:3 screen

Conversely, if you were to watch a standard 4:3 TV show on a widescreen TV, you will end up with something referred to as pillarboxing which places black bars at the sides of the image:

A standard 4:3 TV show as shown on a 16:9 widescreen TV

On the other hand, some TVs and other devices (such as the iPod itself) also provide the option for cropping content to fit the aspect ratio of the screen. As the name implies, cropping the content chops off the portion of the image that does not fit, expanding the image to the full size of the screen.

This will result in the loss of detail on the left and right sides when trying to display widescreen content on a 4:3 screen:

A widescreen TV show cropped for 4:3 display

A Cinemascope Movie, 2.35:1 aspect ratio, cropped for 4:3 display

Or, the top and bottom of the image in the case of trying to display 4:3 content to fill a 16:9 screen:

A standard 4:3 TV show cropped for 16:9 display


Anamorphic Encoding

Some newer video conversion tools now provide support for anamorphic encoding. This basically refers to encoding video content in one aspect ratio but setting it to display using another, through the use of non-square pixels.

A pixel is not necessarily always rendered as a perfectly square element of a picture, and many modern video playback applications and hardware support a pixel aspect ratio (PAR) setting. In fact, the aspect ratio of content as stored on a normal North American DVD is actually 1.5:1 (720 x 480), rather than either 16:9 or 4:3. A DVD player, however, produces an image in the appropriate aspect ratio by reading a flag within the content that tells the player what shape of pixels to use when playing back the video content. The result is that a 720x480 DVD image is actually rendered in 640 x 480 (4:3) or 854 x 480 (16:9).

Without getting into too much technical detail, the short explanation is that the use of anamorphic encoding can provide a proper widescreen presentation of a movie without having to force it to actually be encoded at the higher resolution. Since nothing is truly gained by increasing the encoded resolution of a video, it makes more sense to save the storage space and simply render the frame in its proper aspect ratio, in the same way that a DVD player does.

An anamorphically encoded video, when examined in Quicktime’s Show Movie Inspector dialog, will actually show two different resolutions:


The first number, 720 x 480, is the actual stored resolution of the video image. The second represents the aspect ratio that it will play back in. The 720 horizontal pixels will simply be stretched to fill the width of the screen, resulting in a proper 16:9 presentation.

Note that if you are viewing an anamorphically-encoded video on a device that doesn’t understand pixel aspect ratio (PAR), then the resulting video will appear distorted, as it will simply play back in its actual stored resolution.

At this point, the fifth-generation iPod and Apple TV support pixel aspect ratio and will therefore display an anamorphic video properly.  The iPhone does not presently handle pixel aspect ratio, and anamorphic videos will therefore look distorted when viewed on the iPhone.

Hard Letterboxing

One other problem that you may encounter is that many DVDs, particularly older ones, were actually in what was known as a “hard letterbox” format, rather than a proper anamorphic widescreen format. In this case, even though the original video format may have been widescreen, the DVD video is not actually encoded in a widescreen aspect ratio. Rather, “letterboxed” movies were basically encoded onto the DVD in a 4:3 aspect ratio with the black bars at the top and bottom actually added to the movie. This would allow these movies to play in a widescreen format even on older DVD players that did not have a widescreen mode.

Unfortunately, however, when these DVDs are converted, most video converters will leave them in their original 4:3 aspect ratio, with the black bars as part of the frame. In this case, the resulting video will be treated as a 4:3 video, with the black bars continuously shown at the top and bottom of the frame. Cropping will not be available on the iPod, and the Apple TV and iPhone will show these videos by default in a black frame:


In this case, the black bars at the top and bottom are not being generated by the output device, but are in reality part of the video image.

When dealing with DVDs, the description on the packaging can often be helpful in determining what the source format is. Although the terminology differs among the different studios, many older DVDs that used the term “Letterboxed” referred to this type of encoding: a 4:3 image with the black bars added to the frame. On the other hand, the term “anamorphic widescreen” almost always refers to videos that are properly encoded in 1.85:1 or 2.35:1 aspect ratio. Note that this will be a much less common issue with DVDs that have been more recently published.

You can also check whether or not your video content is in a proper widescreen format by viewing it in a window on your computer through iTunes or QuickTime. When playing video in a window, QuickTime will not add any black bars, but will rather show the window itself in the proper aspect ratio.


On the other hand, if a video is “letterboxed” and has been encoded in a 4:3 aspect ratio, the QuickTime window will be in a 4:3 aspect ratio as well, and the black bars will be apparent in the video.


Note that the same holds true for most DVD playback applications, so you can often check a DVD before encoding it by simply playing it back on your computer in a window through your software DVD player, such as Apple’s DVD Player app included with Mac OS X.

In this case, to produce a proper widescreen video, you would need to manually crop the video using your original encoder to remove the black bars from the top and bottom of the image.

Apple Devices and Aspect Ratios

All of this creates an additional consideration when encoding video content based on your choice of device:

  • The 5G iPod has a screen that is a 4:3 aspect ratio (320 x 240) and will also only output to a TV in a 4:3 aspect ratio. Widescreen videos on the iPod or TV output will either be shown letterboxed or cropped, depending on the “Widescreen” setting on the iPod itself.
  • The Apple TV on the other hand is designed to output to a 16:9 widescreen HDTV. Standard TV content will therefore be shown as pillarboxed by the Apple TV. Most high-definition TVs have a “zoom” feature that can used to crop the 4:3 output instead if this is preferred.
  • The iPhone has a screen with a 1.5:1 aspect ratio (480 x 320), and no TV output capabilities at this time. 4:3 content will be pillarboxed by default, and 16:9 and 2.35:1 content will be letterboxed by default. The iPhone implements a “zoom” feature to crop the image to fill the screen in either aspect ratio.

Although the aspect ratio is going to be determined by the source content, this is an important consideration when deciding on the optimal resolution due to issues of maximum horizontal and vertical resolution.

For instance, the maximum resolution of a video encoded for iPod playback is 640 x 480, which is essentially standard-definition TV resolution in a 4:3 aspect ratio. Unfortunately, this maximum resolution means that 16:9 content gets encoded for the iPod at 640 x 360 and 2.35:1 content gets encoded at 640 x 272. Both of these are significantly below the resolution of a standard TV, and will look significantly deficient when played on an HDTV.

Therefore, while encoding standard 4:3 TV content for playback on both an iPod and Apple TV may be practical, since the maximum resolution of the source material is limited to 640 x 480 anyway, encoding movie content intended for playback on the Apple TV is a tougher decision. The Apple TV itself can display 16:9 widescreen content in full 854 x 480 resolution, taking full advantage of the original DVD quality, but this will of course limit these files to being playable only on the Apple TV.

The following table illustrates the maximum resolutions that can be played by each device for the three common aspect ratios:


Note that although the Apple TV is capable of playing 4:3 content in a much higher resolution than the iPod, most of the available 4:3 content will only be in a 640 x 480 resolution to begin with, and nothing is truly gained by increasing this resolution to anything higher.

Single-Device Viewing

Of course, it stands to reason that if you’re going to be encoding video solely for the purpose of watching on one specific portable device, and never intend to watch it anywhere else (“never” being a very long-term word), then you should encode it to the screen resolution of that device for the best possible quality and optimal file-size. The iPod and iPhone will scale down anything larger to their native screen resolution anyway, so encoding anything in a larger resolution is simply a waste of space.

Keep in mind, however, that the 5G iPod also offers the capability of outputting video content to a TV, and 320 x 240 content will look noticeably poor on anything but the smallest of TV screens. This alone may be a reason to use the higher 640 x 480 resolution, even for iPod content.

Recommended Resolutions for typical content

So, armed with all of this information, what are the recommended resolutions that should be used for the content that you’re likely to be encoding? 

Ultimately, the ideal resolution will be determined by the source material in question, the desired output quality, available storage space, and of course the devices on which you’ll be watching the content. However, a brief summary of the recommended maximum resolutions for compatibility with the various devices is shown in the following table:


With the exception of standard 4:3 TV content, videos encoded in the “Apple TV” resolutions noted above will only play back on the Apple TV. On the other hand, videos encoded in the lower resolutions supported by the iPhone and iPod will also play on an Apple TV, although the more limited vertical resolutions for widescreen and CinemaScope content will produce much lower-quality images when viewed on larger-screen TVs, making the decision on whether to trade off for mobile compatibility or TV viewing quality a difficult one for some.

Note as well that when encoding standard-definition DVDs for the Apple TV, considerable space can be saved when using a tool that supports anamorphic encoding, since increasing the size of a 720 x 480 video to the larger horizontal resolutions above may require a higher bit-rate to render and thereby unnecessarily increase the file size.


While perhaps not the most inexpensive method, the easiest way to get video content that is playable on the iPod is still to purchase it from the iTunes Store. However, this is not always practical for all users, and certainly not even available to many iPod users outside of the U.S. As a result, the only practical way for many to get video content in an Apple-ready format and build a library is to convert your own content.

Unfortunately, video conversion can be a time-consuming task, so it is important to have a good understanding of the various issues before spending many dozens of hours converting video only to discover that it is not in the most optimal format. Further, due to the time required, it is a good idea to try and create a video collection that takes into account the platforms and devices that you may want to use in the future.

In our next article we will be looking at some of the more popular conversion tools that are available for encoding video content onto the iPod from various sources and covering some tips on ways to best optimize video conversion using these tools.


« The Complete Guide to iPod, iPhone and Apple TV Video Conversion (Mac)

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I work for a tv station and we currently convert all of our shows to .m4v and .mov for iPod and internet viewing.  We edit on Final Cut Studio and use Compressor for the conversions. We would like to attach our logo for to be displayed as album art in itunes and on the ipod but do not know the process.  I am not even sure where to look to begin. Any help you could give would be appreciated.  Thanks.

Posted by maharvey on July 17, 2007 at 11:14 AM (CDT)


@maharvey: It’s so simple it hurts. Drag the file into iTunes, show the album art pane, then drag an image into that pane. Then drag the file out again.

Posted by Japester on July 17, 2007 at 7:50 PM (CDT)


I have exported from iMovie 06 - using the default setting for iPhone. But the aspect ratio is different from what is shown within iMovie versus the exported video for iPhone. The iPhone video is widder - making people appear shorter and fatter! Will iPhone auto correct the ratio for playback?

Posted by cannuck on August 20, 2007 at 6:58 PM (CDT)


I’m a little confused here.
Should different encoding frame rates be used for videos to be played on PAL or NTSC TV *output* ... or does the IPod handle this itself? I have region 1 (NTSC) dvds that I want to convert/store/play on a PAL TV via my iPod. Any recommended settings gurus?

Posted by Ian.Reid on September 3, 2007 at 3:22 AM (CDT)


It is my understanding that the pixel limits of the ipod/iphone are a little bit more complicated than simply limiting the width to 640 pixels. The ipod/iphone is capable of delivering (640x480=)307200 pixels @ 30 fps. 720 x 400 would also be a valid resolution within this restriction, which happens to be the “square pixel” scaled size for 720x480 DVD content. Can you confirm for me if this is true? I recall earlier video ipods had a 230400 pixel limit which would be 640x360, but I am unsure what changed in the newer firmware.

Posted by James HT on September 7, 2007 at 2:53 PM (CDT)



The iPhone apparently does not properly handle PAR or anamorphic encoding at this point.  This is an odd omission, considering that the 5G iPod and Apple TV have no issue with this.  The result, however, is that if you are using PAR, video on the iPhone will look distorted as you describe.


Ideally, you should go with frame rates for your primary viewing medium, but also based on your source medium.  There is no point in trying to transcode a 25fps PAL video into 30fps NTSC, for example.

The general rule of thumb is that if you stick with the source medium, you should be okay.  The iPod will handle the PAL output for you just fine.  However, if you’re going to be doing most of your viewing in PAL anyway, you can get away with a lower bit-rate (and smaller resulting file size) as well as slightly improved quality, by encoding at a PAL frame-rate to begin with.


The reality of the encoding situation with the 5G iPod is that it “officially” only supports the Baseline 1.3 Low Complexity profile, which is 640x480.  Some have been able to push this higher with mixed results, but iTunes itself will not load any video onto the iPod that is greater than 640 wide or 480 high (ie, a 641x480 video will not be accepted by iTunes).

My own suspicion is that since Apple could not make this work reliably on the 5G iPod, they just hard-coded iTunes to not accept anything higher than the published standard.

The iPhone and new iPod models (Sep 2007) now suport the higher Baseline 3.0 profile that allows for higher bit-rates and video resolutions up to 720x480.  You can therefore push the video to a 720x404 resolution, for instance (in the case of a 16:9 video).

Posted by Jesse Hollington in Toronto on September 9, 2007 at 12:36 PM (CDT)


Thank you and thank you again. You have a wonderful gift for explaining things. You are my new guru.

Posted by saive on January 2, 2008 at 11:52 AM (CST)


Hello, thanks for the very in depth and interesting read. My knowledge on video is very limited and a lot of it seems to go over my head but I am learning.

I have the latest 5g ipod classic and have started putting movies on to it using either popcorn or isquint (depending)

My question is regarding apple tv. I am thinking about purchasing this for my living room. I have a 40’ flat HD TV and would like to place my movies on to the apple tv unit as well. I want the movies on the apple TV unit to be of a good quality when played through my TV.

Should i therefore have two versions of everything on my itunes (one resolution for ipod and one for apple TV)?

Is there an in between resolution that will work on the ipod but still look good on my TV? What would you suggest?

It seems silly to have two versions of everything.

Thanks for your help.

Posted by calamucho on January 4, 2008 at 6:41 AM (CST)


Thanks for the very detailed info :)
But I still wonder do 640x480 ,h264 and bit rate settings affect iphone performance or battery ? does 480x320 ,mpeg4 help it last longer? could you recommend bit rate setting?
Thank you in advance :)

Posted by sid2106 on August 13, 2008 at 9:27 AM (CDT)


1)YES .. THE PROCESS IS SOOOOOO easy IT HURTS to even type this here

2)Add the finished FILE to ITUNES on your laptop/PC

3)Right Click on file and go to “GET INFO”

4) then go to “ARTWORK” tab

5) add graphics or Picture (jpeg = best)

Posted by Insert" graphics for IPOD or IPHONE on August 24, 2008 at 12:06 AM (CDT)


HOW does an ipod get on-line?

Posted by kay swanson on August 29, 2008 at 11:11 AM (CDT)


hi guys, i have an iphone 3g and i have problems converting .avi videos. can anybody help me with the correct setting,because the videos are always streched out to the edges, i cant make them widescreen. i use total video converter.

Posted by jay violator on September 11, 2008 at 4:20 PM (CDT)


In the maximum resolution section, for 16:9 it says the iPhone/iPod maximum is 640 x 360. This is a mathematical 16:9 ratio.

In the recommended section, however, it recommends 640 x 352, and I was wondering if this was just a typographical mistake, as it is not the right ratio?

Also, one poster mentioned 720 x 480 for Baseline 3.0, and for 16:9 suggested 720 x 404, however shouldn’t the mathematical correct ratio be 720 x 405?

Does anyone know what the correct ratios to use should be?

Posted by S. Gryphon on September 27, 2008 at 8:18 AM (CDT)


#12: The iPhone 3G’s anamorphic support works a bit differently compared to the other iPods. You’re best to avoid any anamorphic settings if your software allows you to toggle that option off and just encode native resolution (ie, use 640x352 for a DVD instead of anamorphic 854x480). If you’re encoding actual DVDs, you may want to take a look at the latest version of Handbrake, which does support anamorphic video for the iPhone properly.

#13: While 640x360 is mathematically correct, there is a secondary issue in that the MPEG encoding standards use 16x16 “macroblocks” so you’re generally best to stay with resolutions that are evenly divisible by 16 (mod16) in both height and width to ensure an even number of macroblocks. WIth many encoders, setting for 640x360 is only going to render a 640x352 image anyway, while in other encoders, you’ll end up with a bunch of partial blocks that increase file size without increasing overall quality (and in some cases even decrease quality).

The green lines you’ll sometimes see at the top and bottom edges of videos played on your computer through apps like VLC are a result of a partial block at the frame edge not being rendered properly.

Posted by Jesse Hollington in Toronto on September 28, 2008 at 9:07 AM (CDT)


Howdy all,

I hope my question has a simple answer. I’m encoding some TV shows from DVD for use on my AppleTV. I’m encoding in H.264, 640x480 1500kbps. I have a standard tv (must remember to secure replacemetn HDtv to wall better).

When i play the resulting encoded show, it is displayed “square” with pillarboxing on the sides. Yet when i play a video from the iTunes store, they fill the screen.

Any suggestions why the AppleTV would be pillarboxing my shows? (They display fine on the pc).

Thanks in advance!

Posted by madisonbear on September 30, 2008 at 12:31 PM (CDT)


Very, Very helpful publication. Thanks to your pixel conversions I have perfect quality movies on my iPhone 3G using MPEG Streamclip for conversions.

Thank you Jesse.

Posted by Daniel Kelly on November 4, 2008 at 3:56 PM (CST)


I have a Denon ipod docking station (ASD-11R) running through a Denon AVR-2308CI and am unable to get cover flow or any other video from my 1200 gb.  The ipod settings are consistent with the isntructions - but the amp settings are fuzzy- I do get the ipod song/playlist info and am able to contorl the Ipod through the amp - but no video…

Posted by Steve Johnston on November 30, 2008 at 5:10 PM (CST)



I have the same problem.

I have contacted Apple but they are not forthcoming.

I think they have not supported the s-video output foir the Ipod Touch 2.2 firmware as they want peopl to only use their component or composite cables.

Maybe wrong thoug.


Posted by Neil Courtman on December 22, 2008 at 6:06 AM (CST)


I have a 120 Classic IPod and I’ve downloaded a TV show called Metalocalypse, 2 epidodes on Itunes Store. I just can’t import those epidodes to my Ipod, I’ve tried a lot of ways to do it. I just don’t know what else I could do. Could you help me?
Thanks a lot

Posted by Fabricio on January 22, 2009 at 2:35 PM (CST)



Recently I tested many different video formats for my ipod touch and I can’t but to disagree with this article.

I made a video that was 720 x 480 (29,97 fps) and it worked in my ipod touch. The PAL resolution 720 x 576 (25fps) also worked. Whether I used an digital aspect ratio of 4:3 or 16:9 didn’t matter, they both displayed correctly and played fine. The actual pixel count was equal in both cases.

I also tried video bitrates up to 2000kbps and 128kbps for audio and they worked just fine. I don’t know if 2000kbps is the limit, I didn’t try any higher bitrates, but with h.264, 2000 is sufficient to a sd resolution.

So, for instance, if you want to make a simple dvd-rip for your ipod touch or iphone, it’s not necessary to make any image resizing. Just set the correct aspect ratio to the video stream, encode to h.264 and it will work.

(you can do it all free with x.264 encoder and megui)

Posted by ipod touch owner on January 29, 2009 at 5:56 PM (CST)


I am learning a lot from all these posts, and I appreciate the helpful info.  However, I am not as savvy as many of you young folks..  lol.  I have an Ipod touch, and want to “rip?” dvd’s that I have purchased from Stores, etc into my Itunes library so that i can watch them when I travel.  I ran into a person on a plane that was watching a full length movie on his ipod touch, just last week.  I think I might be doing something wrong, because I tried to download one yesterday and it wouldnt go… because it was protected.  Now what?  Thanks!!!  Shelley (someones GRANDMA)

Posted by Shelley Shevchik on March 11, 2009 at 3:11 AM (CDT)


Thank you so much for this guide! It helped me finally get my videos to play on my ipod, though I have only been messing around with all this for a couple days.
Shelley Shevchik you could use what I have been using. I downloaded “DVD Decrypter” which takes everything off the dvd and puts it on your computer. Then I used “Handbreak” to convert the video files to an itunes playable format. Both programs are free.  There are plenty of tutorials for handbreak on the net.  Then just check this page for all the video resolution, bit rate, format, etc info.  There may be better programs out there but I have only been messing around with this stuff for a few days.  I hope that helps a little

Posted by Kory on March 12, 2009 at 5:10 PM (CDT)


i would like to ask if you could send me a file which contains a Mp4 converter.
I wasn’t able to put my downloaded movies into my ipod touch.

Posted by Marc Jacinto on March 23, 2009 at 2:32 AM (CDT)


Well after spending the last week tryin and reading this whole page twice i still find my self LOST!  ive got a 80gb ipod classic? idk but need to know the pixel ratio for it. Thanks

Posted by travass on March 26, 2009 at 5:23 PM (CDT)


Hi, how can I convert videos in ISO format to mp4 ?

Thanks, Bob

Posted by Bob Montgomery on May 15, 2009 at 9:24 PM (CDT)


Magic dvd ripper will convert from iso’s. If I have another format other than an iso, I put it into convertxtodvd and customize my settings (screen, subtitles, etc.).

I then either burn to dvd or burn to a folder if I don’t want a hard copy, and then convert from folder for ipod or whatever.

If I want a hard copy and a file for ipod, I then just let burn to dvd and then use Magic dvd ripper to convert for ipod. Oh, and these allow bypass of protection for converting for your ipod or for backups.

This is not an advertisement. You can find other programs out there for free.  These do cost money, they are just what work for me.  Some programs may be able to handle both tasks in one program.  There are a lot of settings in these programs, just take your time and save what works for you.

Posted by Alley on June 29, 2009 at 3:27 AM (CDT)


guys…...plz tel me which all video formats are supported by apples ipod…

Posted by ajmal on June 30, 2009 at 12:23 AM (CDT)


Hello, I’m new to ipod video. I want to play back video from my ipod to my flat screen and the software I’m using is 123 Copy DVD Gold wich has a tool for converting DVD’s for ipod use. The play back on ipod is great but when I play the same converted MPEG4 file on my PC its very grainy. So my question is (1) when I hook up my ipod video cables to my TV will it play back grainy or does the ipod compensate. (2) whats the word on converting Blue Ray to ipods and whats a good software to do this? I looked at anybody have feed back about this software?

Posted by C.W. on July 26, 2009 at 10:37 AM (CDT)


Hi is there any way of playing itunes videos from iphone 3g onto tv?
thank you

Posted by helen on September 22, 2009 at 8:25 AM (CDT)


I’m also wondering about optimal resolution, assuming zoomed viewing of 16:9 material, and keeping bitrate around 500-600kbps.  For years I have been using 320x176 (for original iPod, letterbox view).  I now have an iPhone and have been trying 448x240.  Other options would be 480x256 (for letterbox view) or 560x320 (for zoomed).  In number of pixels, that’s respectively: 1.9x, 2.2x, and 3.18x.  While I like the idea of one dimension being “native”, there is no way that 560x is going to look alright at my target bitrate.
240 is an even ratio of 320, though, and dropping the CRF setting a bit so that 90% more pixels than 320x176 compress into a slightly higher bitrate (55% vs 60% in Handbrake) is something of a wash - more detail, but more artifacts.  Keeping 60% CRF gives almost double the bitrate.  57-58 may be a good compromise, though I’m not sure that the same (higher) bitrate at the old 320x176 res wouldn’t look better.

Complicated, but the bottom line is that any setting in these ranges looks OK.  I doubt that battery life varies much one way or the other. Scaling may use more power, but I imagine processing a higher bitrate would use much more.

Posted by Renard Dellafave on September 22, 2009 at 5:00 PM (CDT)


Hi Jesse: I’ve taken videos on my new 3GS iPhone and want to put them on my website. They come in as a .mov file. Question: which free software should I get to manipulate the file? It’s quite large on my screen, 480 x 640 so I would like to make it about half that size without losing any quality. Any tricks to putting the resulting video online and making it universally playable?

Posted by Mike on October 14, 2009 at 9:15 AM (CDT)


I am currently recording via eyeTV using the mpeg-4 (best, 720x576) encoding. After exporting the recordings in a H.264 (720x540) format, AppleTV shows black bars around the movie on my TV (similar to the picture shown in “hard letterboxing” paragraph above). Could someone please help me exporting the videos in the right format so the black bars disappear?
Kind regards, Axel

Posted by Axel on October 14, 2009 at 11:47 PM (CDT)


I would like to convert my videos to be played on my laptop as well as my 5g ipod. When I download from Itunes the resolution can be 640x272 or even as high as 1280x720 (The Office TV show). I can watch them large on my laptop and everything transfers to my ipod without a problem. But I tried to do MP Holy Grail at 640x480, 781kbps tbr, H.264codec but it couldn’t be synced (said it couldn’t be played on the ipod). It only syncs on my ipod at 320x180 which is too small to be easily viewed on my laptop. I don’t want to have to waste space on 2 files each (1 for laptop and 1 for ipod). What am I doing wrong?

Posted by Ellie on November 29, 2009 at 1:59 PM (CST)


I just want a simple answer to my question.  I download movies to my 8GB ipod and then with an av cable I watch then on my 52 inch plasma tv.  What is the best resolution and bit rate to use.  I seem to get a blurry picture on the tv with what I am doing know.

Posted by John on December 3, 2009 at 1:59 PM (CST)


When I take video on my IPHONE in vertical position (as opposed to landscape), it becomes distorted when I export to imovie 6.  Everything looks stretched out wide.  How do I solve this?

Posted by Alexander H. Roberts on December 6, 2009 at 5:29 AM (CST)


Hi there, I have a weird problem. I had a 5th generation iPod video 80 gig—when I converted DVDs they worked great. (320 x 224) They played on my iPod screen and looked normal. Now I recently bought the new iPod classic—120 gig. When I dragged in the SAME movies - same format, etc. to my new ipod and played them on the screen, they looked distorted. The people looked stretched up and down - they were ‘thinner.’ Why wouldn’t they work on my new ipod? Isn’t it the same size screen? I even tried to convert them again changing it to 640 x 480—that didn’t work either. Can someone explain not only why they won’t play right on my iPod classic when they looked fine on my 5th generation video ipod—and also, please help me figure out what to do to convert them so they will look ‘normal’ on my new iPod classic. I don’t want to watch these on TV. ONLY on my iPod screen. Thanks so much for any help/advice/etc. you can offer…

Posted by Carrie on December 7, 2009 at 11:53 AM (CST)


how to add tvshows to my apple classic ipod and another thing is am i able to add applications to my ipod which i have downloaded in the itunes store and how to podcasts to my ipod

Posted by shiv on December 31, 2009 at 2:03 PM (CST)



David your article is very informative and excellent presentation…
thank you

Posted by raj on January 8, 2010 at 10:02 PM (CST)


When I watch movies on my TV via iPod, on the screen of the iPod it say accessory not supported.
What does it mean and how can I resolve it?

Posted by Charlotte on January 23, 2010 at 7:12 AM (CST)


i have a ipod video and i plug the ipod in to the charger and thats the only time it will turn on i dont know what is wrong with it

Posted by dustin on February 16, 2010 at 9:43 AM (CST)


Why is my iPod touch 3gs 32Gig only holds 29 videos. When I add more videos, it only shows 29. How can I add more videos? Any suggestions. Help!!!!!!!

Posted by raider on February 21, 2010 at 7:20 AM (CST)


This file might not be a proper video/audio format

Posted by mrzbko on February 27, 2010 at 5:19 PM (CST)


I encode all of my clips for playback on DVD’s, Apple TV, the iPhone/iPod Touch and the web for my blog and website.

My website is all flash based which is nice, but if the viewer is on his/her iPhone (or the newly released iPad) which doesn’t support flash, they can’t view my videos.  So my goal is to allow the vieer on a computer to playback the h.264 videos I post on the website (embedded in a flash player) but to provide a link to the same h.264 video file on my blog allowing the iPhone viewer to click on a link to that video and watch playback on their iPhone. 

I have discovered that the h.264 format I’ve been encoding for my flash-based website will also playback on the iPhone 3GS from a link on my blog, but not on the iPhone 3G.  For the life of me, I can’t figure out why it won’t play on both iPhones.  Im within the file specs for the iPhone, what difference should it make it the viewer is on the 3G or 3GS iPhone?

Video encoded with the following specs will playback great on an iPhone 3GS, but not a 3G/ Im using Episode for the encoding. The Bandwidth controls is set to VBR using VBV with a Peak rate set 1400 kbit/s and the average rate set to 1200 kbit/s.  The size is set to 480 x 270.  If the rate doesn’t go any higher than 1.5 mb/s it should playback on both phones, right?

If I want the video to playback on both iPhones (3G and 3GS) I have to use VBR using VBV with a peak rate set to 810 kbit/s and the average rate is set to 675 kbit/s. The size is again set to 480 x 270.

So why won’t the video encoded at a Peak rate of 1400 kbit/s with the average set to 1200 kbit/s playback on the 3g iPhone when downloaded from a blog page?

Posted by Ron Priest on March 7, 2010 at 1:23 PM (CST)


I’ve found the answer to my question above.  The settings that I have been using include using a “Main” Encoding Profile.  If I encode using a Baseline profile then the file will work on both 3G and 3GS iPhone.  Apparently the 3G won’t play back Main but the 3GS will.

Posted by Ron Priest on March 16, 2010 at 6:02 PM (CDT)


So if I understand this guide correctly, there is not an optimum size/bit rate for a file to play on both the iPod AND the AppleTV? You have to have one file for the ATV and one for the iPod? If so, how does the ITunes Store get around this issue with the movies that they offer? After all when you download a movie from the iTunes Store you don’t specify whether you are using it on an iPod or ATV.

Posted by Sean Sykes on March 30, 2010 at 8:48 PM (CDT)


Standard Definition video content from the iTunes Store are encoded in the iPod resolution, which still looks fine, if not ideal, on the Apple TV.  The iTunes Store also uses anamorphic encoding now for most of its 16:9 content, which all iPod and iPhone devices released in the past year or two fully support. The quality of an iTunes Store download is theoretically lower than that of a DVD due to the 640x480 vs 720x480 encoding and slightly lower bit rate, but most users won’t notice the difference.

When purchasing HD content, you actually get two files from the iTunes Store: The HD version, encoded in 720p settings and the SD version for viewing on the iPod or iPhone. iTunes combines these into a single entry in your iTunes library and selects the appropriate file depending on which device you want to sync to.

Note that when renting HD movies through iTunes, you only get the HD version, and it can therefore only be watched on your Apple TV or your computer.

Posted by Jesse Hollington in Toronto on March 31, 2010 at 11:45 AM (CDT)


Any tips on the optimum resolution to encode content for the iPad?


Posted by Ipadder on April 3, 2010 at 6:08 PM (CDT)


I have an Ipod classic (next to last gen) and an Ipod Touch (latest gen).  For some reason I can play a video on my classic, but that SAME exact video file will not play on my touch.  It will also play on my BB Storm.  Any suggestions?


Posted by Joe on April 5, 2010 at 1:05 PM (CDT)


iPad folks….  the aspect ratio for iPad is not wide screen by any means…  it can do the letterboxing automatically and double tap to the 4:3 like zoom. 

It seems that you can run a normal iPhone encoding on it ok…  but it can also cruise through a 1280x720 h264 without any problems.  You can use the apple tv encoder settings from the compressor… or you can customize a 720p vid to go to 1024 576 size which still looks great on the iPad and saves you a ton of bandwidth. 

that being said…. does anyone know how to stream video with html5 and auto detect the iPad, iPhone, droid ?  while not letting qtpro people download the video to pirate it?

Posted by Chris Maynard on April 6, 2010 at 9:16 AM (CDT)


Is there any way I can get QuickTime media player back on my iPhone

Posted by Julian on April 29, 2010 at 12:01 AM (CDT)


With regards to video being purchased on iTunes and being able to play this back either in Quicktime or on an ipod/iphone. I purchased some recently and these copy over to the hand held device fine without having to convert, and look ok on my Mac. I checked and only one file per film was downloaded, not a HD and LD version as was suggested above.

Example resolution

Iron man:
Bit Rate 125kps
Video Dimensions 853x354
Total Bit Rate 1562 kps

The problem is that I cannot find the same resolution to backup my own DVD collection to a compatible Mac/PS3 and ipod version using tools like Handbrake so I avoid creating multiple copies. Anyone have any suggestions please ?

Posted by Paul on May 4, 2010 at 11:04 AM (CDT)


Hi, I am an owner of an ipod nano 5th generation.
I have downloaded movies I like and put them on itunes, I have then successfully sync’ed them to my ipod but some certain movies don’t go on my ipod even though I have selected them to go on they still won’t go on for some reason. I have 2.57GB free so I don’t think memory is the probem.. Can you please help me??

Posted by Rachel on May 28, 2010 at 12:17 AM (CDT)


i have an 8 gig 1st gen ipod touch and i heard a rumor that if i were to take it on a place the screen would shatter…i am flying from halifax canada to florida and i was wondering if this rumor was true or not…any info would be great…i would like to take some entertainment on my flight but not at the expense of having to buy a new ipod…thank you very much

Posted by Vanessa on May 31, 2010 at 11:12 PM (CDT)


the plane thing is not true I had a ipod on a plane and no problem at all it was even a 1st gen.

Posted by shannon on June 2, 2010 at 11:57 PM (CDT)


I know about the converter thing. I’ve downloaded it and I’ve used it to add songs to my ipod. but I tried downloading a video and it didn’t work. It came out as a ‘song’  (it only has the sound)
At last, I solved the problemI with iFunia video converter.

Posted by zisel on June 24, 2010 at 11:35 PM (CDT)


I have found that using Any Video Converter Free edition is very very nice for converting all your videos to the correct format for the Ipod, Iphone, Ipad, and the Apple tv and for dvds too!

And I have tested with 480x320 resolution with Xvid codec and i have found that it looks better then encoding with H.264 and it does allow me to put it into itunes.

And also can you make your info on the video framerates and bitrates a little bit more easier to read? such as put up the actual tested results in a large graph. Because you put 640x480 as a egzample and that h.264 and Mpeg-4 supports it but the maximum output format is 480x320? And i have encoded videos with 12000 bitrate and they were supported by itunes, and Apple says it itunes supports it then the Ipod touch will so you need to be a little bit more clearer when you are putting this information up. Once i get my new Ipod touch i will put up a simplified version if you dont :P

Posted by Arkamond on June 28, 2010 at 7:28 PM (CDT)


And Vanessa, think about how people handle air pressure while going higher and lower in the atmosphere and about the Ipod touch…

If your ipod touch broke because of the pressure then you would also die or be severely injured.

Posted by Arkamond on June 28, 2010 at 7:38 PM (CDT)


Joe, to answer your question. You should try converting to a diffrent size, codec, or audio codec. The Ipod touch uses a higher firmware for videos so you have to have some thing very specific and other things can be very far apart. Try using Any Video Converter and convert the original video to a .Mp4
here are the specs you should set it to

Codec= x264 (Also known as H.264) or use Mpeg4
Frame Size= 480x320, 480x360, 640x480 use any one of these.
Bitrate= 4000
Framerate= 30
Encode Pass= 2

Codec= AAC
Bitrate= 128
Sample Rate= 32000
Audio Channel= 2
Disable Audio= No
A/V Sync= Basic

You might have to try it multiple times such as with the frame size and video codec.
It could just simply be the orginal file had a small problem with it that could be fixed by just simply converting it.
If you are still having problems with it i will gladly fix it once i actually get my touch and test it.

Posted by Arkamond on June 28, 2010 at 7:51 PM (CDT)


Carrie, the problem is most companys even if it is the same screen do not make the same brand all the same when they put more memory onto it or change it a little bit. Try converting to 320x240 frame size and keep everything the same for the original video file.

Posted by Arkamond on June 28, 2010 at 7:55 PM (CDT)


Ron Priest, Same thing as above just dont convert it. They changed the phone a little bit and either it is a bug or the video playback on the iphones are diffrent from each other. Apple will do this when they have something they wanted to impliment on a new firmware on an older one but just felt like putting it on a newer one instead. Its how companys learn from mistakes really.

Posted by Arkamond on June 28, 2010 at 7:59 PM (CDT)


Excellent article. Great for someone like me just getting started with video encoding. Thanks!

Posted by xr280xr on July 14, 2010 at 2:05 PM (CDT)


helo guys…. anyone who could help me out installing itunes cause im still having dificulty of installing it…. Is there any posible site where i could download musics, videos, etc. for my ipod nano 5th edition. thank you in advance.. my email address: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

Posted by glenn on September 14, 2010 at 10:05 AM (CDT)


There’s no need to convert videos if you want to put them in iTunes. I use VideoDrive and it puts all my AVI and MKV videos in iTunes within seconds, tagged with metadata and artwork:

Clearly, those videos still need to be converted when putting them on an iPad or iPod, but it’s nice to be able to make a nice catalogue of all your videos first. I only convert the videos when I watch them on the go.

Posted by Mik25 on November 1, 2010 at 5:33 AM (CDT)


I have a problem with my Ipod touch

Posted by luke on December 17, 2010 at 9:05 AM (CST)


I bought an ipod touch 3 generation for my son and just downloaded Toy Story 3 on it, but when I went to play the movie, the color was all wrong, the faces greenish, eyes white, etc.  What happened?

Posted by Shannon on January 13, 2011 at 11:00 PM (CST)


Please tell me how to down load music on my 2g ipod ?

Posted by jerome Fields on October 25, 2011 at 6:18 PM (CDT)


Well done! I would really be happier individual if everybody wrote also as you do. Thanks once more

Posted by disc on February 13, 2012 at 8:01 PM (CST)


FINALLY! An article that goes into great detail about what I’ve been looking for.  Here is my issue:

I currently have (2) New iPads (3rd Gen), (2) ATV’s (2nd Gen), iPhone 4S, iPhone 4, MBP, iPhone 3GS, iPhone 3G.

I have a TON of camcorder videos that I have already started converting.  Since my main desktop computer is a PC, I used Windows Movie Maker and converted to .wmv.  I chose settings like 2.1MBs for local playback and my 30 minute home video is about 1GB in size.

I would then convert my .wmv’s to H.264 or .mp4 using Format Factory then transfer to my Buffalo 4TB NAS Drive.

Buffalo has a nice app that allows for accessing my media content and natively playing my files (music and movies).

Here is my issue:

All of my home movies will buffer every 10 seconds or so when connected wirelessly to my ATV.  I have some other movies that were originally 700mb .avi’s that I’ve converted to .mp4 and they play fine.  They buffer in the beginning but that’s it.

I ultimately want to have the ability to watch all my Media Content across all devices (ATV, iPad, iPhone…I would rarely watch them on the computer).  Can anyone suggest the best methods for accomplishing this?

I have already captured 20gb of home movies that are in .wmv format so i am hoping that I don’t need to recapture and re-encode.

Can anyone help?  Also what software’s can i look at that will help me achieve this?  I can do PC or Mac.

Thanks again!

Posted by Phil on May 4, 2012 at 9:55 PM (CDT)


can anyone tell me a step by step guide to convert video using any free video convertor to put my videos of .avi or mp4 or 3gp format to my itunes n then to my iphone 3gs

Posted by pratik varma on July 18, 2012 at 2:46 PM (CDT)


I have recently been “elected” to do some video recordings for a friend working for an admirable environmental cause. Is there a way that I can download the videos from her iPhone-4s to my pc for editing/processing? I have seen several “explanations” online which assume that the iPhone will show up on my computer as a video device or external storage device when connected by USB, but that simply does not happen. I have tried via iTunes as well, with no luck. She needs to have a presentation ready soon, including excerpts from her public presentation, and I am really stuck for a solution. Any guidance that you can provide will be greatly appreciated!

Posted by Newvideographer on May 26, 2013 at 11:08 PM (CDT)

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