Why Custom Earphones Cost So Much: Inside Ultimate Ears’ Labs | iLounge Article


Why Custom Earphones Cost So Much: Inside Ultimate Ears’ Labs

The market for premium in-canal earphones is growing: as iPod users and other music fans have begun to understand the substantial quality differences between free, packed-in earbuds and each step up the price ladder, they’ve become increasingly willing to spend upwards of $50 - sometimes $100 to $300 - for earpieces that reveal more of the original detail, presence, and spectrum of music. iLounge’s editors are all converts: as owners of in-canal monitors priced as high as $900, yet fans of various models priced far lower than that, we’ve pretty much heard it all, and it’s hard to go back to the cheap stuff.

Up until recently, though, we were faced with a question that hadn’t been fully answered on the site: why are custom-fit in-canal earphones so much more expensive than the $50 Sony earbuds you see in stores? To get the answer, we visited the Orange County, California-based labs of Ultimate Ears - a long-time leader in custom-fit audio monitors - taking notes and snapping photos. In summary, the $550 to $900 cost is attributable to two things: high-quality components and staggering amounts of human labor.


Any company - and we mean any company - can put a tiny speaker into a plastic casing that fits in your ear. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of highly similar earbud models are turned out of Chinese factories every year, and as a consequence, we’ve heard the same thing over and over again from iPod accessory companies: “the parts are cheap, the labor’s cheap, and we can build the best quality earphones for nothing.” But then something inevitably happens: they try and fail. Their earbuds sound flat, muddy, distorted, or shrill. And a year or two later, once they’ve sold all their inventory, they confess that something went wrong, but they’re not sure quite what it was. For some reason, the headphones made by dedicated audio companies just sound better.


Part of that “some reason” is precision measurement and component testing - the best earphone makers can guarantee that every one of their units sounds nearly identical to the original design, and that the original design was made to sound pretty much the same from ear to ear. This mass-manufacturing strategy explains why a company like Shure or Etymotic can satisfy everyone from hard-core audiophiles to less discerning listeners with a non-custom-fit earphone like the E500 or ER-4P, both recently reviewed by iLounge as outstanding. However, Ultimate Ears and other custom earphone makers take this process a step further: they measure your ear, then design their monitors to fit and sound perfect inside. As more fully described in our review of the company’s UE-10 Pro earphones, this process begins with a visit to an audiologist who makes molds of your ear canals (shown above), and ends with the receipt of a box with finished custom monitors inside.


What goes into making those monitors? The biggest surprise is that the finished products, shown several pictures up, are hollow inside and tuned completely - yes, completely - by hand. Those pink ear molds are digitized using a 3-D scanner, then transformed into reverse molds that are used to create hollow acrylic shells in your choice of colors. Clear remains Ultimate Ears’ most popular color, but new bright-colored shells, like the one above, are becoming increasingly in-demand as fashion accessories.


Each of the shells is hand-polished by a two-stage coarse- and fine-grain machine, yielding pieces that feel smooth and soft in your ear. Occasionally, as we found with our UE-10 Pros, additional post-receipt tweaking is necessary to make the fit perfect; having already upgraded its digitizing hardware since our units were made two years ago, Ultimate Ears is in the process of moving to even more advanced 3-D digitizing tools that will yield more perfect results out of the box. An ideal fit with your ear canals guarantees superior isolation from outside noises, one key to creating an engrossing, enjoyable listening experience.


With the shell finished, completed driver and wire packages are inserted - these packages differ based on the model and price of the earphones, ranging from dual-driver $550 models to $850 triple-driver UE-7s and the $900 triple-driver-plus-circuit-board UE-10s, each fitting inside the enclosure. The presence of these multiple drivers makes further miniaturization a challenge, but not an impossibility - Ultimate Ears’ earlier super.fi earphones shrunk dual-driver designs into an even smaller, less expensive enclosure, and Shure’s recent E500s managed to do the same with a triple-driver design. By contrast, Ultimate Ears’ larger, custom-fit earpieces are designed to provide additional isolation from outside noise and guaranteed personalized comfort; recent innovations have enabled customers to add artwork, jewels, and other fashion twists to these models. We’ll have more to share on that point shortly.


Once the drivers are inside the shell, engineers tune the components with syringes of additional acrylic to guarantee that the sound output of each earpiece matches or closely approximates the signature audio curves shown on the company’s web site. Each pair of earphones is placed in a special monitoring vise for measurement, with adjustments to the sound-shaping canals being made by hand. It’s hard to overstate the importance and value of this process: top-quality sound, hand-calibrated to make sure that your ears hear what they’re supposed to be hearing. This sort of attention to sound and fit detail is the reason why professional musicians go on stage - and off-stage - with custom earpieces rather than off-the-shelf earbuds.


With the earpieces tuned, finished, and marked with personally-identifiable information, all that’s left is the packaging. Two minutes after we told Ultimate Ears that their older metal UE-series boxes were getting long in the tooth, the company’s representatives were showing us this: the newest metal custom-fit case, which will start to be available in the near future. Larger than the prior box, the new one holds your choice of iPod alongside the earphones, and will include a smaller metal earbud-only case for greater portability. A laser etching process done on-site customizes each box for its recipient.


So yes, these earphones sell for premium prices, and no, they’re not right for everyone - you need to have a lot of cash in order to pay two or three times the cost of an iPod just for any pair of headphones. But if you’re looking for something that’s ultra-personalized, possessing top-shelf audio quality and noise isolation without forcing you to wear huge earcups, custom-fit earphones are one of your best options - the sort of gift virtually any serious listener would want to receive, and one that’s worth its added price.

« Filling iPods completely

Quickly erasing duplicate songs »

Related Stories



It might be a challenge, but could you attempt to quantify the benefit in sound quality terms over, say, a regular high grade earphone like a Shure e4c? Is there any point if you listen to iTunes music store 128 kbps music? Or do you need to rip your CDs in lossless or .wav formats to get any noticeable benefit?

Posted by drevo_uk in East Amherst, NY, USA on August 29, 2006 at 4:02 PM (CDT)


I don’t have a custom solution, but the Shure E5s with the triple-flange sleeve is as close as you can get for less than $750 IMHO.

The difference on ALL music, regardless of quality level, is very, very noticable.  Now, this means that badly-encoded stuff - and some of the ITMS is badly encoded - will be revealed in all its badness.  I’ve found that mp3s ripped in an external ripper using LAME alt.preset.extreme are about as low quality as I want to go.  They sound great and are still reasonably sized, but yes, you can hear the difference between that and lossless.  It’s all a compromise for file size in the end.  How much quality are you willing to lose?  With these high-end earbuds…you’ll notice every step down the ladder.

I imagine that it’s a diminishing return when you delve into the $750 and $1000 range…the difference between $50 earbuds and $500 Shures is that the Shures are at LEAST ten times better.  Would a custom set of UEs be twice as good as the Shure E5s to justify the cost?  Dunno, but I ain’t got a grand to find out either.

Posted by stark23x in East Amherst, NY, USA on August 29, 2006 at 6:34 PM (CDT)


What I wonder is if you take a pair of, say, Etymotic E-4P’s and retrofit them with custom ear molds from Sensaphonics (authorized by Ety), how far off will that leave you from the UE-10’s?

(Anyone know how much the Sensaphonics molds cost? I couldn’t find this on their Website.)

Posted by orgel in East Amherst, NY, USA on August 30, 2006 at 12:49 PM (CDT)


I’ve got a pair of the UE5’s and would add this:
1. They sound great.
2. They are too hard to be comfortable for hours and hours of extended listening. I think they are now offering a softer version as an option. If you buy any UE’s get the softer ones, even if they’re more expensive.
3. Sound Quality: I’ve been an audiophile forever and have spent a zillion dollars on equipment. Bottom line: it does matter at the high end, but it’s not linear, dollar for dollar. Some high end manufacturers don’t actually deliver all that much for the money and some deliver giant leaps of quality that leave you gasping for air, as you realize sound quality you never knew existed.
It’s very hard to put into words.
These headphones are very good, but in the world of high end audio, they’re not at all expensive. They cost what good headphones cost.
What matters most is the quality of the drivers inside and the balance of the overall sound. The shape/fit are less so, in my view, but that’s my opinion.
Personally, I find myself using them less, just because I don’t find them all that comfy. Too bad.

Posted by Jeff M in East Amherst, NY, USA on August 30, 2006 at 3:00 PM (CDT)


Consider a set of Etymotic ER-4S in-ear ‘phones with a set of custom ear molds.  We have a set of molds made by EARinc.com / Insta-Mold.  The increased isolation and bass response is defnitely worth the roughly-$100 cost of the molds.

The ER-4S are pro-quality but not quite in the class of the high end over-the-ear headphones (e.g., Grado, Sennheiser).  The have a peak in the treble that can wear you down over a few hours.

Posted by LenMinNJ in East Amherst, NY, USA on August 31, 2006 at 12:09 PM (CDT)


I have a pair of Shure E-3C earphones and love them. Last month while replacing a foam pad on the earphone, it broke. I sent it in to Shure for repair, but they replaced the entire set. I had a new set within the week. Product support was wonderful when I first emailed them all the way through the process. I would buy Shure anytiime, anywhere.

Posted by Monty Lee in East Amherst, NY, USA on September 1, 2006 at 11:47 AM (CDT)


orgel wrote:
(Anyone know how much the Sensaphonics molds cost? I couldn’t find this on their Website.)

Sensaphonics doesn’t put prices on their website, if you’re serious about getting them you can just call them, they are very nice people and are very helpful over the phone and emails. They might not respond to your email right away, but they will eventually. I would just call them and talk to them about it.

Though, if you care enough to get custom molds for your universal-fit IEMs, you will eventaully want a pair of customs, so I would just get a pair of customs made instead.

Posted by ayn in East Amherst, NY, USA on September 11, 2006 at 2:49 PM (CDT)


Consider a set of Etymotic ER-4S in-ear ‘phones with a set of custom ear molds.

Of course, keeping in mind that the ER-4s typically requires a separate headphone amp.

Sensaphonics doesn’t put prices on their website

There have been reports of problems encountered with Sensaphonics’ molded components cracking over time. Their ProPhonic 2X-S has its dedicated fans, but for that sort of money I’d demand better durability.

Posted by flatline response in East Amherst, NY, USA on April 14, 2007 at 1:59 PM (CDT)


I’m hard of hearing in one ear—is it possible to find custom headphones that have separate volume controls?

Posted by paul terrrell in East Amherst, NY, USA on June 30, 2008 at 8:56 PM (CDT)


Hi all. I handle marketing for Sensahonics. We are focused on the pro market, so don’t get involved in many discussions like this. However, I hate to see misinformation sitting out there on the Web. A couple long-overdue comments:

1. Sensaphonics earphones DON’T CRACK! They are made from soft, medical-grade silicone, so they flex. In addition to being far more comfortable than the hard plastic and acrylic used by others, the material actually acts as a shock absorber, protecting drivers and the internal electronics.

2. The ProPhonic 2X-S goes for $750; the 2MAX for $850. The 2MAX is optimized for use with wireless in-ear systems; both have the same sonic signature.

3. We don’t have separate volume controls, but Sensaphonics does offer the Model 221, designed for those with unilateral hearing loss (deaf in one ear). The 221 routes both channels to a single earpiece.

Posted by Jack Kontney - Sensaphonics in East Amherst, NY, USA on September 30, 2009 at 11:54 AM (CDT)

iLounge Weekly

Recent News

Recent Reviews

Recent Articles

Sign up for the iLounge Weekly Newsletter

iLounge is an independent resource for all things iPod, iPhone, iPad, and beyond.
iPod, iPhone, iPad, iTunes, Apple TV, Mac, and the Apple logo are trademarks of Apple Inc.
iLounge is © 2001 - 2019 iLounge, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use | Privacy Policy