Q: Is it possible to view the images from my iPhone through iCloud.com? How about checking call logs and message history?
A: Unfortunately, for whatever reason Apple does not offer any of these features via the iCloud web site. If you’re using the iCloud Photo Stream feature, your images are automatically uploaded to iCloud whenever your iPhone or other iOS device is on a Wi-Fi network, but sadly Apple does not provide any way to access these through iCloud.com; the only Photo Stream related feature available is an option to clear out your Photo Stream entirely.
The only feature that iCloud provides for accessing photos online is in the form of Shared Photo Streams, where you can publish a shared collection of photos as its own virtual web site. To do this, you must create a Shared Photo Stream, specifically add the photos to it that you want to share, and then enable the “Public Website” option in the settings for that Photo Stream.
As the name suggests, this will share all of these photos publicly on a special web site under iCloud.com. The site created by iCloud uses an obscured link that is not indexed by search engines, but anybody who has access to the link will be able to view your photos. This is not really a solution for viewing random photos that happen to be on your iPhone, since you have to add these photos specifically, but it’s a useful workaround if there are specific photos you want to have access to online.
Other information such as call logs and message history are not stored separately in iCloud at all. Although these do form part of your iOS device backups in the same way as any other data on your iPhone, unlike backups made to your computer by iTunes, there is no way to directly access these backups or any data in them other than restoring them onto an iOS device in their entirety.